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Composite Design Pattern

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In this video we will discuss
  • What is Composite Design Pattern
  • Implementation Guidelines of Composite design pattern
  • And will take a look at simple example to implement this pattern

Composite Design Pattern : As per the GOF definition, the Composite Pattern, "Compose objects into tree structures to represent part-whole hierarchies. Composite let clients treat individual objects and compositions of objects uniformly. 
  
This means, the composite pattern describes a group of objects that is treated the same way as a single instance of the same type of object.


Implementation Guidelines : We need to Choose Composite Design Pattern when
  • Represent part-whole hierarchies of objects.
  • Clients to ignore the difference between compositions of objects and individual objects.
Representation Diagram :

composite design pattern implementation

Client 
  • Clients use the Component interface to interact with objects in the
Component
  • is the abstraction for all components, including composite ones
Leaf
  • Represents leaf objects in the composition
  • Implements all Component methods
Composite
  • Represents a composite Component (Please note that composite components have children and they could be composite child’s or leafs )
  • Implements all Component methods, generally by delegating them to its children
If you take a closer look at the representation diagram, the composite pattern can violate the Liskov substitution principle, as we end up with a dummy implementation of Add and Remove methods at the leaf throwing run-time error as add and remove partitions at the leaf doesn’t have any significance.

Hence we can change this representation slightly in a new form as shown below. If we compare previous and the current one notice that we have changed the component methods to have only the one which can be implemented by both leaf and composite nodes.

composite design pattern implementation c#

The following are the steps to implement Composite design pattern

Step 1 : Create an interface IEmployee

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

namespace CompositeDesignPattern.Component
{
    //Component
    public interface IEmployee
    {
        void GetDetails(int indentation);
    }
}

Step 2 : Create Employee Class and implement the interface component

using CompositeDesignPattern.Component;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

namespace CompositeDesignPattern.Leaf
{
    public class Employee : IEmployee
    {
        public Employee(string name, string dept)
        {
            this.Name = name;
            this.Department = dept;
        }

        public string Name { get; set; }
        public string Department { get; set; }

        public void GetDetails(int indentation)
        {
            Console.WriteLine(string.Format("{0}- Name:{1}, Dept:{2} (Leaf) ",
                new String('-', indentation), this.Name.ToString(),
                this.Department));

        }
    }
}

Step 3 : Create Manager Class which is the composite and implement the interface component and add the subordinates as shown below.

using CompositeDesignPattern.Component;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

namespace CompositeDesignPattern.Composite
{
    public class Manager : IEmployee
    {
        public List<IEmployee> SubOrdinates;
        public Manager(string name, string dept)
        {
            this.Name = name;
            this.Department = dept;
            SubOrdinates = new List<IEmployee>();
        }
        public string Name { get; set; }
        public string Department { get; set; }
        public void GetDetails(int indentation)
        {
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine(string.Format("{0}+ Name:{1}, " +
                "Dept:{2} - Manager(Composite)",
                new String('-', indentation), this.Name.ToString(),
                this.Department));
            foreach (IEmployee component in SubOrdinates)
            {
                component.GetDetails(indentation + 1);
            }
        }
    }
}

Step 4 : Above mentioned classes are created under the below folder structure. Again it’s not mandatory to follow this folder structure as we are just doing this for representation purpose.

composite design pattern implementation in .net c#

Step 5 : Switch to the client which is main program and implement the below code

using CompositeDesignPattern.Component;
using CompositeDesignPattern.Composite;
using CompositeDesignPattern.Leaf;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

namespace CompositeDesignPattern
{
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            IEmployee John = new Employee("John", "IT");
            IEmployee Mike = new Employee("Mike", "IT");
            IEmployee Jason = new Employee("Jason", "HR");
            IEmployee Eric = new Employee("Eric", "HR");
            IEmployee Henry = new Employee("Henry", "HR");

            IEmployee James = new Manager("James", "IT")
            { SubOrdinates = { John, Mike } };
            IEmployee Philip = new Manager("Philip", "HR")
            { SubOrdinates = { Jason, Eric, Henry } };

            IEmployee Bob = new Manager("Bob", "Head")
            { SubOrdinates = { James, Philip } };
            James.GetDetails(1);
            Console.ReadLine();
        }
    }    
}

Step 6 : Run the application and notice the below output which implements the composition of employees.

composite design pattern real time example

Design Patterns tutorial for beginners

1 comment:

  1. Please add some video related to ASP.NET CORE

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