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Sql date interview questions

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In this video we will discuss the common date related sql interview questions and answers. If you are comfortable with the SQL Date functions, then you should be able to easily answer most of these questions. It is also useful to understand SQL CAST & CONVERT functions. We discussed DATE, CAST & CONVERT functions in Parts 25 to 28 in our SQL Server Tutorial.


After watching this video you should be able to answer any sql date interview questions similar to the following. 


Write a SQL query to get
  • All people who are born on a given date (For example, 9th October 2017)
  • All people who are born between 2 given dates (For example, all people born between Nov 1, 2017 and Dec 31, 2017)
  • All people who are born on the same day and month excluding the year (For example, 9th October)
  • All people who are born yesterday, today, tomorrow, last seven days, and next 7 days
  • All people whose birth year is the same (For example, all people born in 2017, 2018 etc.)
Once you are comfortable answering these questions you can extend the concepts you have learned to answer similar questions like the following.
  • Orders placed between 2 given dates or on a given day, month, year etc.
  • Customers gained or lost.
  • Employees joined or left etc.
We will use the following Employees table for all our queries

sql date interview questions

Here is the SQL Script to create the table and populate it with data

Create Table Employees
(
       ID int identity primary key,
       Name nvarchar(50),
       DateOfBirth DateTime
)

Insert Into Employees Values ('Tom', '2018-11-19 10:36:46.520')
Insert Into Employees Values ('Sara', '2018-11-18 11:36:26.400')
Insert Into Employees Values ('Bob', '2017-12-22 10:40:10.300')
Insert Into Employees Values ('Alex', '2017-12-30 9:30:20.100')
Insert Into Employees Values ('Charlie', '2017-11-25 7:25:14.700')
Insert Into Employees Values ('David', '2017-10-09 8:26:14.800')
Insert Into Employees Values ('Elsa', '2017-10-09 9:40:18.900')
Insert Into Employees Values ('George', '2018-11-15 10:35:17.600')
Insert Into Employees Values ('Mike', '2018-11-16 9:14:17.600')
Insert Into Employees Values ('Nancy', '2018-11-17 11:16:18.600')

Notice, for the DateOfBirth column we have use DateTime data type. When a record is inserted, both the date and time parts are stored in the table. If you have used the Date data type instead, you would not have the time part stored and as a result the queries would have been slightly easier. 

However, in most cases it would be useful to capture the date and time when a transaction has occurred as apposed to just the date part. Hence I have used DateTime data type.

Write a SQL query to retrieve all people who are born on a given date (For example, 9th October 2017)

Notice we are using the SQL CAST() method to convert DateTime data type to Date data type which returns just the date part and that is compared with the DATE string in the WHERE clause.

SELECT Name, DateOfBirth, CAST(DateOfBirth AS DATE) AS [DatePart]
FROM     Employees
WHERE  CAST(DateOfBirth AS DATE) = '2017-10-09'

Result

sql query same birth date

Write a SQL query to retrieve all people who are born between 2 given dates (For example, all people born between Nov 1, 2017 and Dec 31, 2017)

SELECT Name, DateOfBirth, CAST(DateOfBirth AS DATE) AS [DatePart]
FROM     Employees
WHERE  CAST(DateOfBirth AS DATE) BETWEEN '2017-11-01' AND '2017-12-31'

Result

sql date range query between

Write a SQL query to retrieve all people who are born on the same day and month excluding the year (For example, 9th October)

SELECT Name, DateOfBirth, CAST(DateOfBirth AS DATE) AS [DatePart]
FROM     Employees
WHERE  DAY(DateOfBirth) = 9 AND Month(DateOfBirth) = 10

Result

sql select month and day from date

Write a SQL query to get all people who are born in a given year (Example, all people born in the year 2017)

SELECT Name, DateOfBirth, CAST(DateOfBirth AS DATE) AS [DatePart]
FROM    Employees
WHERE  YEAR(DateOfBirth) = 2017

Write a SQL query to retrieve all people who are born yesterday

To get the current date/time we use GETDATE() SQL function

SELECT GETDATE()

To retrieve just the date part use CAST function

SELECT CAST(GETDATE() AS DATE)

To get yesterday's DATE, use DATEADD() function

SELECT DATEADD(DAY, -1, CAST(GETDATE() AS DATE))

To get all people who are born yesterday

SELECT Name, DateOfBirth, CAST(DateOfBirth AS DATE) AS [DatePart]
FROM    Employees
WHERE CAST(DateOfBirth AS DATE) = DATEADD(DAY, -1, CAST(GETDATE() AS DATE))

To get yesterday's date, we are adding -1 to the DAY part of the DATE. So if today is Nov 10, 2017, the following DATEADD() function will give us Nov 9, 2017

SELECT DATEADD(DAY, -1, CAST(GETDATE() AS DATE))

To get all people who will be born tomorrow, add 1 to the DAY part of the DATE as shown below.

SELECT Name, DateOfBirth, CAST(DateOfBirth AS DATE) AS [DatePart]
FROM    Employees
WHERE  CAST(DateOfBirth AS DATE) = DATEADD(DAY, 1, CAST(GETDATE() AS DATE))

To get all people who are born since yesterday (i.e all the people who are born yesterday and today)

SELECT           Name, DateOfBirth, CAST(DateOfBirth AS DATE) AS [DatePart]
FROM              Employees
WHERE           CAST(DateOfBirth AS DATE)
BETWEEN       DATEADD(DAY, -1, CAST(GETDATE() AS DATE))
AND                 CAST(GETDATE() AS DATE)

To get all people who are born in the last 7 days (excluding today)

SELECT         Name, DateOfBirth, CAST(DateOfBirth AS DATE) AS [DatePart]
FROM            Employees
WHERE         CAST(DateOfBirth AS DATE)
BETWEEN     DATEADD(DAY, -7, CAST(GETDATE() AS DATE))
AND               DATEADD(DAY, -1, CAST(GETDATE() AS DATE))

To get all people who are born today

SELECT        Name, DateOfBirth, CAST(DateOfBirth AS DATE) AS [DatePart]
FROM            Employees
WHERE         CAST(DateOfBirth AS DATE) = CAST(GETDATE() AS DATE)

sql server interview questions and answers

1 comment:

  1. Great exercise for all Date funtions. Thanks Venkat Sir :)

    ReplyDelete

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