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JavaScript closure example

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Part 25 - Different ways of defining functions in JavaScript
Part 26 - Local and global variables in javascript
Part 27 - Closures in JavaScript



In this video we will discuss a simple JavaScript closure example. Every time we click a button on a web page, we want to increment the click count by 1. There are several ways we can do this.



Using a global variable and incrementing it every time we click the button : The problem with this approach is that, since clickCount is a global variable any script on the page can accidentally change the variable value.

<script type="text/javascript">
    var clickCount = 0;
</script>

<input type="button" value="Click Me" onclick="alert(++clickCount);" />

Using a local variable with in a function and incrementing it by calling the function : The problem with this approach is that, click count is not incremented beyond 1, no matter how many times you click the button.

<
script type="text/javascript">
    function incrementClickCount()
    {
        var clickCount = 0;
        return ++clickCount;
    }
</script>

<input type="button" value="Click Me" onclick="alert(incrementClickCount());" />

Using a JavaScript closure : A closure is an inner function that has access to the outer function’s variables in addition to it's own variables and global variables. In simple terms a closure is function inside a function. These functions, that is the inner and outer functions could be named functions or anonymous functions. In the example below we have an anonymous function inside another anonymous function. The variable incrementClickCount is assigned the return value of the self invoking anonymous function.
<
script type="text/javascript">
    var incrementClickCount = (function ()
    {
        var clickCount = 0;
        return function ()
        {
            return ++clickCount;
        }
    })();
</script>

<input type="button" value="Click Me" onclick="alert(incrementClickCount);" />

In the example above, in the alert function we are calling the variable incrementClickCount without parentheses. At this point, when you click the button, you get the inner anonymous function expression in the alert. The point I want to prove here is that, the outer self-invoking anonymous function run only once and sets clickCount variable to ZERO, and returns the inner function expression. Inner function has access to clickCount variable. Now every time we click the button, the inner function increments the clickCount variable. The important point to keep in mind is that no other script on the page has access to clickCount variable. The only way to change the clickCount variable is thru incrementClickCount function.
<
script type="text/javascript">
    var incrementClickCount = (function ()
    {
        var clickCount = 0;
        return function ()
        {
            return ++clickCount;
        }
    })();
</script>

<input type="button" value="Click Me" onclick="alert(incrementClickCount());" />

JavaScript tutorial

2 comments:

  1. A wish you happy new year to venkat sir and all the users of this community.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Sir i am Using Same Example in asp.net page but value does not retain , its always one how could i resolve it.

    ReplyDelete

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