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Partial methods in C# - Part 63

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Part 61 - Partial classes in C#
Part 62 - Creating partial classes in c#

A partial class or a struct can contain partial methods. A partial method is created using the partial keyword. Let us understand partial methods with an example. Create a console application. Add a class file, with name PartialClassFileOne.cs, to the project. copy and paste the following code.

Notice, that, the SampleMethod() definition has the partial keyword, and does not have a body(implementation) only the signature. The implementation for a partial method is optional. If we don't provide the implementation, the compiler removes the signature and all calls to the method.

The implementation can be provided in the same physical file, or in another physical file, that contains the partial class. In this example, the partial SampleMethod() is invoked in the PublicMethod().

partial class SampleClass
{
    // Declaration of the partial method.
    partial void SampleMethod();

    // A public method calling the partial method
    public void PublicMethod()
    {
        Console.WriteLine("Public Method Invoked");
        SampleMethod();
    }
}



Copy and paste the following code in the Main() method of the console application. When we run the application now, notice that, we don't get a compiler error, in spite of not having an implementation for the partial SampleMethod(). Since, the implementation for the partial method is missing, the compiler will remove the signature and all calls to the method.
SampleClass SC = new SampleClass();
SC.PublicMethod();

Now, add a class file, with name PartialClassFileTwo.cs. Copy and paste the following code. The implementation for the partial method is provided here.
partial class SampleClass
{
    // Partial method implemented
    partial void SampleMethod()
    {
        Console.WriteLine("Partial SampleMethod Invoked");
    }
}



Now, run the console application and notice the output. The partial method and the public method messages are printed on the console. 

A partial method declaration consists of two parts. 
1. The definition (only the method signature ending with a semi-colon, without method body)
2. The implementation. 
These may be in separate parts of a partial class, or in the same part.

Partial methods are private by default, and it is a compile time error to include any access modifiers, including private. The following code will raise an error stating - A partial method cannot have access modifiers or the virtual, abstract, override, new, sealed, or extern modifiers.
partial class SampleClass
{
    private partial void SampleMethod();
}

It is a compile time error, to include declaration and implementation at the same time for a partial method. Code below produces a compile time error - No defining declaration found for implementing declaration of partial method 'PartialMethodsDemo.SampleClass.SampleMethod()'
partial class SampleClass
{
    partial void SampleMethod()
    {
        Console.WriteLine("SampleMethod Implemented");
    }
}

A partial method return type must be void. Including any other return type is a compile time error - Partial methods must have a void return type
partial class SampleClass
{
    partial int SampleMethod();
}

A partial method must be declared within a partial class or partial struct. A non partial class or struct cannot include partial methods.

Signature of the partial method declaration, must match with the signature of the implementation.

A partial method can be implemented only once. Trying to implement a partial method more than once, raises a compile time error - A partial method may not have multiple implementing declarations.

3 comments:

  1. sir,
    in the tutorial about the " multicast of delegates", you've mentioned about design pattern.You said that you will discuss about that in a later session.But you haven't.Please check that.Thanks

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello, I expect the design pattern too , I hope you can make that tutorials ,Thank you very much!

      Delete
  2. Hello Venkat !

    Thanks for your great effort...I watched all your videos...All are very interesting as all are well explained and full of knowledge...Can you please explain THREADING and DESIGN PATTERNS in some videos.... I shall be very thankful to you as thousands of others...

    ReplyDelete

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