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Transactions in SQL Server - Part 57

What is a Transaction?
A transaction is a group of commands that change the data stored in a database. A transaction, is treated as a single unit. A 
transaction ensures that, either all of the commands succeed, or none of them. If one of the commands in the transaction fails, all of the commands fail, and any data that was modified in the database is rolled back. In this way, transactions maintain the integrity of data in a database.

Transaction processing follows these steps:
1. Begin a transaction.
2. Process database commands.
3. Check for errors. 
   If errors occurred, 
       rollback the transaction, 
   else, 
       commit the transaction

Let's understand transaction processing with an example. For this purpose, let's Create and populate, tblMailingAddress and tblPhysicalAddress tables
Create Table tblMailingAddress
(
   AddressId int NOT NULL primary key,
   EmployeeNumber int,
   HouseNumber nvarchar(50),
   StreetAddress nvarchar(50),
   City nvarchar(10),
   PostalCode nvarchar(50)
)

Insert into tblMailingAddress values (1, 101, '#10', 'King Street', 'Londoon', 'CR27DW')



Create Table tblPhysicalAddress
(
AddressId int NOT NULL primary key,
EmployeeNumber int,
HouseNumber nvarchar(50),
StreetAddress nvarchar(50),
City nvarchar(10),
PostalCode nvarchar(50)
)

Insert into tblPhysicalAddress values (1, 101, '#10', 'King Street', 'Londoon', 'CR27DW')

An employee with EmployeeNumber 101, has the same address as his physical and mailing address. His city name is mis-spelled as Londoon instead of London. The following stored procedure 'spUpdateAddress', updates the physical and mailing addresses. Both the UPDATE statements are wrapped between BEGIN TRANSACTION and COMMIT TRANSACTION block, which in turn is wrapped between BEGIN TRY and END TRY block. 

So, if both the UPDATE statements succeed, without any errors, then the transaction is committed. If there are errors, then the control is immediately transferred to the catch block. The ROLLBACK TRANSACTION statement, in the CATCH block, rolls back the transaction, and any data that was written to the database by the commands is backed out.

Create Procedure spUpdateAddress
as
Begin
Begin Try
Begin Transaction
Update tblMailingAddress set City = 'LONDON' 
where AddressId = 1 and EmployeeNumber = 101

Update tblPhysicalAddress set City = 'LONDON' 
where AddressId = 1 and EmployeeNumber = 101
Commit Transaction
End Try
Begin Catch
Rollback Transaction
End Catch
End



Let's now make the second UPDATE statement, fail. CITY column length in tblPhysicalAddress table is 10. The second UPDATE statement fails, because the value for CITY column is more than 10 characters.
Alter Procedure spUpdateAddress
as
Begin
Begin Try
Begin Transaction
Update tblMailingAddress set City = 'LONDON12' 
where AddressId = 1 and EmployeeNumber = 101

Update tblPhysicalAddress set City = 'LONDON LONDON' 
where AddressId = 1 and EmployeeNumber = 101
Commit Transaction
End Try
Begin Catch
Rollback Transaction
End Catch
End

Now, if we execute spUpdateAddress, the first UPDATE statements succeeds, but the second UPDATE statement fails. As, soon as the second UPDATE statement fails, the control is immediately transferred to the CATCH block. The CATCH block rolls the transaction back. So, the change made by the first UPDATE statement is undone.

5 comments:

  1. Hi Venkat, when we will use savepoint statemnet in sql .

    ReplyDelete
  2. hi venkat i couldnt find any video in isolation lavel..pls help me find it..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Neeta, I don't have a video on Isolation Levels. Will record and upload a video on this concept as soon as I can.

      Delete
  3. PLEASE UPLOAD NAMING CONVENTIONS FOR REAL TIME IN c# AND sQL

    ReplyDelete
  4. Thank you very much for all your effort, many you be blessed with great success in your carrier.

    ReplyDelete

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