Support us .Net Basics C# SQL ASP.NET ADO.NET MVC Slides C# Programs Subscribe Buy DVD

Error handling in sql server 2000 - Part 55

Suggested SQL Server videos
Part 18 - Stored procedures


With the introduction of Try/Catch blocks in SQL Server 2005, error handling in sql server, is now similar to programming languages like C#, and java. Before understanding error handling using try/catch, let's step back and understand how error handling was done in SQL Server 2000, using system function @@Error. Sometimes, system functions that begin with two at signs (@@), are called as global variables. They are not variables and do not have the same behaviours as variables, instead they are very similar to functions.

Now let's create tblProduct and tblProductSales, that we will be using for the rest of this demo.

SQL script to create tblProduct
Create Table tblProduct
(
ProductId int NOT NULL primary key,
Name nvarchar(50),
UnitPrice int,
QtyAvailable int
)

SQL script to load data into tblProduct
Insert into tblProduct values(1, 'Laptops', 2340, 100)
Insert into tblProduct values(2, 'Desktops', 3467, 50)

SQL script to create tblProductSales
Create Table tblProductSales
(
ProductSalesId int primary key,
ProductId int,
QuantitySold int
)



Create Procedure spSellProduct
@ProductId int,
@QuantityToSell int
as
Begin
-- Check the stock available, for the product we want to sell
Declare @StockAvailable int
Select @StockAvailable = QtyAvailable 
from tblProduct where ProductId = @ProductId

-- Throw an error to the calling application, if enough stock is not available
if(@StockAvailable < @QuantityToSell)
 Begin
Raiserror('Not enough stock available',16,1)
 End
-- If enough stock available
Else
 Begin
  Begin Tran
        -- First reduce the quantity available
Update tblProduct set QtyAvailable = (QtyAvailable - @QuantityToSell)
where ProductId = @ProductId

Declare @MaxProductSalesId int
-- Calculate MAX ProductSalesId
Select @MaxProductSalesId = Case When 
MAX(ProductSalesId) IS NULL 
Then 0 else MAX(ProductSalesId) end 
from tblProductSales
-- Increment @MaxProductSalesId by 1, so we don't get a primary key violation
Set @MaxProductSalesId = @MaxProductSalesId + 1
Insert into tblProductSales values(@MaxProductSalesId, @ProductId, @QuantityToSell)
  Commit Tran
 End
End

1. Stored procedure - spSellProduct, has 2 parameters - @ProductId and @QuantityToSell. @ProductId specifies the product that we want to sell, and @QuantityToSell specifies, the quantity we would like to sell. 

2. Sections of the stored procedure is commented, and is self explanatory.

3. In the procedure, we are using Raiserror() function to return an error message back to the calling application, if the stock available is less than the quantity we are trying to sell. We have to pass atleast 3 parameters to the Raiserror() function.
RAISERROR('Error Message', ErrorSeverity, ErrorState)
Severity and State are integers. In most cases, when you are returning custom errors, the severity level is 16, which indicates general errors that can be corrected by the user. In this case, the error can be corrected, by adjusting the @QuantityToSell, to be less than or equal to the stock available. ErrorState is also an integer between 1 and 255. RAISERROR only generates errors with state from 1 through 127.

4. The problem with this procedure is that, the transaction is always committed. Even, if there is an error somewhere, between updating tblProduct and tblProductSales table. In fact, the main purpose of wrapping these 2 statments (Update tblProduct Statement & Insert into tblProductSales statement) in a transaction is to ensure that, both of the statements are treated as a single unit. For example, if we have an error when executing the second statement, then the first statement should also be rolledback. 



In SQL server 2000, to detect errors, we can use @@Error system function. @@Error returns a NON-ZERO value, if there is an error, otherwise ZERO, indicating that the previous sql statement encountered no errors. The stored procedure spSellProductCorrected, makes use of @@ERROR system function to detect any errors that may have occurred. If there are errors, roll back the transaction, else commit the transaction. If you comment the line (Set @MaxProductSalesId = @MaxProductSalesId + 1), and then execute the stored procedure there will be a primary key violation error, when trying to insert into tblProductSales. As a result of this the entire transaction will be rolled back.
Alter Procedure spSellProductCorrected
@ProductId int,
@QuantityToSell int
as
Begin
-- Check the stock available, for the product we want to sell
Declare @StockAvailable int
Select @StockAvailable = QtyAvailable 
from tblProduct where ProductId = @ProductId

-- Throw an error to the calling application, if enough stock is not available
if(@StockAvailable < @QuantityToSell)
 Begin
Raiserror('Not enough stock available',16,1)
 End
-- If enough stock available
Else
 Begin
  Begin Tran
        -- First reduce the quantity available
Update tblProduct set QtyAvailable = (QtyAvailable - @QuantityToSell)
where ProductId = @ProductId

Declare @MaxProductSalesId int
-- Calculate MAX ProductSalesId
Select @MaxProductSalesId = Case When 
MAX(ProductSalesId) IS NULL 
Then 0 else MAX(ProductSalesId) end 
from tblProductSales
-- Increment @MaxProductSalesId by 1, so we don't get a primary key violation
Set @MaxProductSalesId = @MaxProductSalesId + 1
Insert into tblProductSales values(@MaxProductSalesId, @ProductId, @QuantityToSell)
if(@@ERROR <> 0)
Begin
Rollback Tran
Print 'Rolled Back Transaction'
End
Else
Begin
Commit Tran
Print 'Committed Transaction'
End
 End
End

Note: @@ERROR is cleared and reset on each statement execution. Check it immediately following the statement being verified, or save it to a local variable that can be checked later.

In tblProduct table, we already have a record with ProductId = 2. So the insert statement causes a primary key violation error. @@ERROR retains the error number, as we are checking for it immediately after the statement that cause the error.
Insert into tblProduct values(2, 'Mobile Phone', 1500, 100)
if(@@ERROR <> 0)
Print 'Error Occurred'
Else
Print 'No Errors'

On the other hand, when you execute the code below, you get message 'No Errors' printed. This is because the @@ERROR is cleared and reset on each statement execution. 
Insert into tblProduct values(2, 'Mobile Phone', 1500, 100)
--At this point @@ERROR will have a NON ZERO value 
Select * from tblProduct
--At this point @@ERROR gets reset to ZERO, because the 
--select statement successfullyexecuted
if(@@ERROR <> 0)
Print 'Error Occurred'
Else
Print 'No Errors'

In this example, we are storing the value of @@Error function to a local variable, which is then used later.
Declare @Error int
Insert into tblProduct values(2, 'Mobile Phone', 1500, 100)
Set @Error = @@ERROR
Select * from tblProduct
if(@Error <> 0)
Print 'Error Occurred'
Else
Print 'No Errors'

1 comment:

  1. Hi Venkat, Thank you so much for the videos!!
    I have a question in this session. In Oracle, when a sql statement fails, it won't proceed with the next statement, but it will go to exception block or completely out of that block or procedue. Is it different in sql server? I see that it's going to the next line in your example above
    Thanks again !!

    ReplyDelete

If you like this website, please share with your friends on facebook and Google+ and recommend us on google using the g+1 button on the top right hand corner.